Forensics refers to the study of formal debate or argumentation in relation to a crime or to a civil action.. It is a presentation of an argument or arguments and employs science and technology to investigate and establish facts in criminal or civil courts of law. Forensic science is concerned with the recognition, collection, identification, individualization, and interpretation of physical evidence, and the application of science and medicine for criminal and civil law, or regulatory purposes. Forensic science is primarily used for probing crime scenes and collecting proofs or evidence that can be presented in the prosecution of offenders in a court of law. It also employed to check compliance with international agreements in relation to weapons of mass destruction.
Forensic Science is also used in areas like biology, chemistry, and medicine, although the science also includes the use of physics, computer science, geology, and psychology. Forensic scientists generally examine objects and substances such as blood or drug samples, paints, explosives, toxins, tissue traces of hair, skin, or impressions like fingerprints or tidemarks which can help in the identification of people that may be involved in the crime.
There are different types of forensic sciences including, criminalistics which is usually applied for the examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, tire tracks and such other evidences used in criminal investigations. Digital forensics is used to retrieve data from electronic / digital media. Forensic anthropology is primarily used for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains at the crime scene. Forensic archaeology combines archaeological techniques and forensic science to solve a crime case. Forensic DNA analysis probes into the particularities of an individual’s DNA and is mainly used for identifying people who are victims of crashes or fires are often unrecognizable. Forensic entomology is applied in examining insects in, on, and around human remains. This observation can then be helpful in determining the time or location of death or if the body was moved after death. Forensic pathology deals with the principles of medicine and pathology and is used to determine a cause of death or injury in a legal setting.
Recently, forensic analysis relating to observing non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, analysis of possible terrorist attacks or breaches of security is gaining heightened prominence in view of the current terrorist operations taking place all over the world . This kind of a forensic science involves collecting evidences of mass destruction like swabs from objects, water, and plant material to test for the presence of radioactive isotopes, toxins, or poisons, as well as chemicals that can be used in production of chemical weapons.
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